Applegate Insulation

Insulation Industry Terms

Industry Terms

  • 16 CFR Part 460 – The FTC R-Value Rule
  • 16 CFR Part 1209 – The CPSC Safety Standard
  • ASTM C-739 – Standard Specifications for Cellulosic Fiber (wood base) Loose-Fill Thermal Insulation
  • ASTM C-1149 – Standard Specification for Self-Supported Spray-Applied Cellulosic Thermal/Acoustical Insulation. Covers 10 material attributes (density, thermal resistance, surface burning characteristics, adhesive/cohesive strength, smoldering combustion, fungi resistance, corrosion, moisture vapor absorption, odor and flame resistance permanency.)
  • Air Changes Per Hour (ACH) – An expression of ventilation rates - the number of times in an hour that a home's entire air volume is exchanged with outside air.
  • Air Barrier – A layer of material resistant to air flow usually in the form of polyolefin (such as Typar®, Tyvek®, and other housewraps). A material that is applied in conjunction with a building component (such as a wall, ceiling or sill plate) to prevent the movement of air through that component.
  • Air Barrier System – The assembly of components used in building construction to create a plane of air tightness throughout the building envelope and to control air leakage.
  • Backer Board – A rigid, non-vapor barrier-forming material such as rock lath, treated cardboard, plywood, etc. that is used to cover the open side of an existing wall and forms a cavity that may be filled with loose-fill insulation. Must have sufficient strength to withstand the pressure developed when filling the cavity.
  • Baffles – Device used to achieve a 1" ventilation space between insulation and roof sheathing in cathedral ceilings. It is an additional expense necessary for Fiberglass, in order to reduce the chances of moisture problems with glass. Baffles additionally are used in attics with soffit ventilation to redirect airflow from attic eave-vents, so that the airflow does not disturb the attic insulation.
  • Band Joist – Vertical member forming the perimeter of a floor system in which floor joists tie in.
  • Blocking – A material used to retain the insulation in place in open areas.
  • Blower Door – Diagnostic equipment consisting of a fan, removable panel and gauges, used to measure and locate air leaks.
  • Blower Door Test – A test used to determine the "tightness" (energy leakage) of your home.
  • Blowing agent – The gas or substance  used in applying Spray Polyurethane Foam. Some blowing agents are harmful to the environment. 
  • Boric Acid – A non-toxic mineral that is used as a fire retardant in cellulose insulation.
  • Bottom Plate (Sole Plate) – Lowest horizontal member of a wall that rests on rough floor, to which studding is nailed.
  • BTU British Thermal Unit – The amount of energy that is required to raise 1 lb. of water up 1º F. Fuel values, heat loss and heat gain are measured in BTU's.
  • BTUH – A rate of energy transfer - can be expressed as BTU’s/hour
  • Building Envelope – The external elements walls, floor, ceiling, roof, windows and doors of a building that encloses conditioned space; the building shell.
  • C-Value (Thermal Conductance) – A measure of a material’s ability to allow heat to pass through it. The same as U-Value, but without air film resistances.
  • Capillary Action, Capillarity – The movement of liquid within a material against gravity as a result of surface tension.
  • Carcinogen – A substance that is believed to cause cancer.
  • Cavity – Empty space between studs/joists in which insulation is installed. 
  • Cellulose Insulation Insulation made from natural fibers, such as cotton, wood or newspaper; making it a natural, environmentally friendly insulation compared to man made fiberglass and foam products. 
  • Circulation – A moving around or through something back to the starting point; circular or circuitous motion.
  • Class 1 Fire Rating – Means that this insulation has a flame spread of 25 or lower as determined by ASTM Standard E-84.
  • Collar Beam – Horizontal tie beam in a roof truss connecting two opposite rafters at a level considerably above the wall plate.
  • Combustion efficiency – A measure of useful heat extracted from a fuel source by an operating heating appliance. For example a furnace with a combustion efficiency of 60 percent converts 60 percent of the fuels energy content into useful heat. The rest is lost as exhaust gases.
  • Conduction – Transmission of energy (heat /sound) through a material or from one material to another by direct contact. Materials with low rates of conductive heat transfer make good insulation.
  • Convection – Transmission of energy (heat /sound) from one place to another by movement of a fluid such as air or water.
  • Corrosion – The process of wearing away gradually, usually by chemical action.
  • Critical Radiant Flux – A test used to simulate conditions in a hot attic, designed to test the surface burning characteristics of insulation.
  • Crawlspace Vent – Opening permitting passage of air through the unexcavated area under a first floor. Ideally there should be at least two vents per crawlspace.
  • Cross Bracing – System of bracing by use of ties.
  • Density – Weight divided by volume typically expressed as pounds per cubic foot.
  • Dew Point – The temperature at which a vapor begins to condense.
  • Diffusion – The movement of water vapor from regions of high relative humidity (RH) toward regions of lower RH driven by a higher to lower temperature differential.
  • Eave Vents – Vent openings under eaves of a house. Also, vents located in the soffit that allow passage of air through the attic.
  • Emission – The manner by which substances are discharged through the air.
  • Enclosed Ceiling Cavities – A ceiling area that is covered on both top and bottom.
  • Face Staple –  The proper way of stapling facing flange to front side of a stud or rafter.
  • Faced Insulation – Batt-style insulation with an attached vapor barrier, usually a non-fire retardant kraft paper or foil-backed paper.
  • Fill Tube – Tube that enables a cavity to be filled through a single entry hole.
  • Flame Retardant – A substance, which is added to reduce or retard a substance's  tendency to burn.
  • Flame Retarded (Adj.) – The property of a material to which flame-retardant has been added.
  • Flame Spread – Standard test for determining relative combustibility. The flame spread of a tested material is rated relative to red oak (flame spread = 100).
  • Flammability – Relative ability of a material to support combustion as expressed by its flash point.
  • Exfiltration – Uncontrolled leakage of conditioned air from inside the home to the outside.
  • Flat Ceiling – Attic floor
  • Foil-Faced Vapor Barrier – Created by coating a foil-backed paper with a thin layer of asphalt adhesive. The coated side of the foil-backed paper is then applied to the unfaced insulation material. The asphalt adhesive bonds the foil-backed paper and the insulation together.
  • Furring Strips – Flat pieces of lumber used to build an irregular framing to an even surface, either the leveling of a part of a wall or ceiling.
  • Gable End Walls – Triangular end of an exterior wall above the eaves.
  • Gable Vents – Louver mounted in the top point of a gable, allowing passage of air through the attic.
  • HH-I-515E – The General Services Administration purchasing specifications for loose-fill cellulose insulation requires ASTM C-739 conformance.
  • Heat loss – Heat that is lost from a building through air leakage, conduction and radiation. To maintain a steady interior temperature, heat losses must be offset by a combination of heat gains and heat contributed by a heating system.
  • Heating Degree Day – A unit to measure "coldness". The number of heating degree days in any given day is the average temperature for that day, subtracted from 65º F. The number of heating degree days per year is used to estimate yearly heat loss in BTU’s.
  • Heat recovery ventilation system – A mechanical ventilation system that recovers energy from exhausted indoor air and transfers it to incoming air. This system usually incorporates an air-to-air heat exchanger which transfers the heat from exhaust air to the incoming air or vice versa.
  • Humidistat – A humidity sensitive control device that signals the ventilation system to operate if the humidity goes above a preset limit.
  • Hydrophobic – Having no affinity for water; not compatible with water. "Water fearing".
  • IIC (Impact Insulation Class) – A single number indicating the effectiveness of a floor/ceiling construction in resisting passage of structure-borne or impact sound.
  • Infiltration – Uncontrolled leakage of air into a building through cracks around doors, windows, electrical outlets and at structural joints.
  • Inset Staple – Stapling of insulation batts to the inside portion of the stud or rafter. Can create thermal bridging which reduces the thermal performance of the batt.
  • Insulated Contact (I.C.) – Marking on recessed lighting fixture indicating it is designed for direct insulation contact.
  • Insulation – Materials with low thermal conductivity characteristics that are used to slow the transfer of heat.
  • Joist – Parallel beam set from wall to wall supporting boards of a floor or ceiling.
  • K-Value – A measure of a homogeneous material’s ability to allow heat to pass through it, independent of its thickness. Determined by multiplying a material’s C-Value by its thickness.
  • Kilowatt-hour (kWh) – Standard unit for measuring electrical energy consumption-kilowatts X hours.
  • Knee Walls – Walls of varying length used to provide additional support to roof rafters with a wide span.
  • Leakage – Loss of heat/cooling in a structure due to poor insulation.
  • Material Safety Data Sheet (MSDS) – A standard formatted information sheet, prepared by a material manufacturer, describing the potential hazards, physical properties, and procedures for safe use of a material.
  • Metal Flue – Metal chamber through with hot air, gas, steam or smoke may pass.
  • Metal Insulation Supports – 16" or 24" wire rods holding floor insulation in place.
  • Non-Combustible Construction – Buildings in which walls, partitions, structural elements, floors, ceilings, roofs and exits are made of noncombustible materials and which require higher fire resistance ratings than combustible construction.
  • Organic – Compounds containing carbon.
  • Perm – A unit of water vapor transmission defined as 1 grain of water vapor per square foot per hour per inch of mercury pressure difference (1 inch mercury = 0.49 psi). Metric unit of measure is ng/m2 s Pa. 1 perm = 55 ng/m2 s Pa
  • Permeability – The time rate of water vapor transmission through unit area of a material of unit thickness induced by unit vapor pressure difference between two specific surfaces, under specified temperature and humidity conditions.
  • pH – A measure of acidity/alkalinity of aqueous mixtures. A measure of pH 7 is neutral, lower is more acidic, higher is more alkaline.
  • PSI – Pounds per square inch.
  • Radiation – Transfer of energy (heat/sound) from one object to another through an intermediate space. Only the object receiving the radiation, not the space is heated. The heat is in the form of low frequency, infrared, invisible, light energy, transferring from a "warm" object to a "cold" object. It is known as the "black body effect".
  • Relative Humidity – The ratio expressed as a percentage of the amount of moisture air actually contains to the maximum amount it could contain at that temperature.
  • Resilient Channels – Metal channels used to inhibit sound transmission from wood studs through drywall.
  • R-Value – A unit of measurement of resistance to heat flow in hr. ft2 º F/BTU.in.
  • RSI – A unit of measurement of resistance to heat flow in m2 º C/W per 25 mm. R = 0.176 RSI
  • Retrofit – The modification of an existing building or facility to include new systems or components. Applegate Cellulose Insulation is often "retrofitted" to existing homes in order to increase energy efficency and reduce utility bills.
  • Ridge Vents – Vents mounted along the entire ridgeline of the roof, allowing the passage of air through the attic or cathedral ceiling.
  • Roof Vents – Louvers or small domes mounted near the ridge of the roof, allowing passage of air through the attic.
  • SBS "Sick Building Syndrome" – Said to exist when one or more similar health problems apparently related to interior environment factors affect occupants of a specific building.
  • STC (Sound Transmission Class) – A way to measure sound travel.
  • Settling – To become compact by sinking.
  • Smoldering Combustion – A test to assess the fire resistance within the insulation layer.
  • Spray-Applied Cellulose – An installation method in which a small amount of water is added to Applegate Stabilized Cellulose Insulation to make it stick when sprayed into wall cavities or attics.
  • Standard Testing – Laboratory test methodology for determining relative properties of materials at specific conditions.
  • Stud – Upright post in the framework of a wall to support an approved interior material such as gypsum wallboard.
  • Subfloor – Structural material spanning the floor joists. Acts as a working platform during construction and a base for the finished flooring.
  • Thermostat – Temperature sensitive control device that signals a heating or cooling system to operate if the temperature in the building reaches a preset limit.
  • Thermal Barrier – A necessary material applied over Spray Polyurethane Foam designed to slow the temperature rise of the foam during a fire and delay the foam's involvement in the fire.
  • Thermal Bridge – A thermally conductive material which penetrates or bypasses an insulation system; such as a metal fastener or stud. A thermal bridge reduces the overall effectiveness of an insulation system.
  • Thermal Resistance (R) – An index of a material's resistance to heat flow. See R and RSI.
  • Thermal Shock – A building materials reaction to rapid changes in temperature.
  • Thermography – A building energy diagnostic technique using an infrared camera for locating areas of temperature differential in a building.
  • Top Plate – Horizontal member nailed to the top of the studding of a wall.
  • Toxicity – A substance that is considered to contain a toxin or poison.
  • U-Value – Overall thermal conductance. U value is equal to the inverse of the sum of the R-values in a system (U = 1 /R total).
  • Unfaced Insulation – Insulation with no attached vapor barrier.
  • Vapor Retarder/Barrier – A layer of moisture resistant material usually which controls moisture diffusion (defined as less than 1 perm) to prevent moisture build up in the walls.
  • Viscosity – The thickness or resistance to flow of a liquid. Viscosity generally decreases as temperature increases; application temperatures of spray foam components are specified in part, to control viscosity at the spray gun.
  • Volatile Organic Compounds (VOC) – Any compound containing carbon and hydrogen or containing carbon and hydrogen in combination with other elements.

Acronyms

  • AISI American Iron & Steel Institute
  • ALA American Lung Association
  • ANSI American National Standards Institute
  • ASHRAE American Society for Heating Refrigeration and Air Conditioning Engineers
  • ASTM American Society for Testing and Materials
  • BETEC Building Environment & Thermal Envelope Council
  • BOCA Building Officials and Code Administrators
  • CABO (ICC) Conference of American Building Officials (International Code Council)
  • CCMC Canadian Construction Materials Centre  
  • CPSC Consumer Product Safety Commission
  • CSA Canadian Standards Association
  • DOE U.S. Department of Energy
  • EPA Environmental Protection Association
  • EEBA Energy Efficient Builders Association
  • EREC Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy Clearing House (DOE program)
  • FSEC Florida Solar Energy Center
  • IBC International Building Code
  • ICBO International Conference of Building Officials
  • MEC Model Energy Code
  • NAHB National Association of Home Builders
  • NAHBRC NAHB Research Center
  • NBC National Building Code of Canada
  • NEAT Novel Environmental Advanced Technology
  • NER National Evaluation Report
  • NIBS National Institute of Building Sciences
  • NIST National Institute of Standards and Technology
  • NRC National Research Council of Canada
  • ORNL Oak Ridge National Laboratories
  • SBCCI Southern Building Codes Congress International
  • UBC Uniform Building Code
  • UL Underwriter's Laboratories
  • ULC Underwriter's Laboratories Canada

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